Technical Topic Udc 725 4 669 1 Design And -Books Download

Technical Topic UDC 725 4 669 1 Design and

2020 | 9 views | 12 Pages | 7.75 MB

3.1.2 Structural form The roof truss design of all of the factory buildings at the time of Yawata's operation was round-shaped and of the king post truss type. Although the reason for the employment of the design of the round-shaped roof is unknown, it is assumed that the round roof de-sign was one of the common designs at the time because factory



NIPPON STEEL SUMITOMO METAL TECHNICAL REPORT No 115 JULY 2017
tory buildings in Yawata was undertaken by mechanical engineers more as the hallmark GUTEHOFFNUNGSH TTTE NO 30 is
stamped on the channel steel used for members of the building of
3 Factory Buildings at the Time of Start of Opera the subject shop this proves that the fabrication and the erection to
tion in Yawata gether with the supply of the steel materials were provided by the
3 1 Repair Shop said company
The Repair Shop completed in 1900 Photos 1 4 3 is the only 3 1 2 Structural form
factory building built at the start of operation of Yawata to survive The roof truss design of all of the factory buildings at the time of
today in its complete form at the same site and is a very valuable as Yawata s operation was round shaped and of the king post truss
set that was registered as a UNESCO World Heritage site in 2015 type Although the reason for the employment of the design of the
together with the former Forging Shop former First Head Office round shaped roof is unknown it is assumed that the round roof de
and the Onga River Water Resource Pumping Station The Repair sign was one of the common designs at the time because factory
Shop is still used by the Yawata Iron and Steel Works to this day buildings with round shaped roofs are introduced in the company
The shop consists of a main building and a lean to on either side records of G H H of that time However as the fabrication trans
The main building measures 15 m wide in span 11 5 m high in eave portation and the erection of the members of the round roof design
height and 140 m long in ridge direction which was extended from building were troublesome there are no round shaped roof designs
the original 50 m in three developments Figs 1 5 3 5 in the factory buildings of the Yawata Iron and Steel Works built at
3 1 1 Designer a later date
The entire process of the construction from the design steel ma As there is no documentation available regarding structure cal
terial fabrication to erection was entrusted to the Gutehoffnungsh tte culation details such as loading conditions are unknown and the
A G hereinafter referred to as G H H in Germany which is con roof truss is characterized by the pin joining of the principal rafter
firmed by the signatures on the drawings that still exist Further ends with columns as well as by the large members channel steel
Photo 1 Repair Shop in May 1900 second building from right 4
Fig 1 Section drawing of Repair Shop 5
Fig 2 Framing elevation drawing of Repair Shop 5
Photo 2 Present Repair Shop
Photo 3 Interior of Repair Shop Fig 3 Roofing framing plan of Repair Shop 5
NIPPON STEEL SUMITOMO METAL TECHNICAL REPORT No 115 JULY 2017
250 90 built in a diagonally crossing manner used as the horizon type of foundation is the same as that of the adjacent former First
tal brace on the roof truss face to enhance the rigidity of the roof Head Office with its brick masonry stated below that was designed
truss Fig 3 5 Photo 3 This indicates that the structure calculation in our country at the same time Fig 5 5
model was used for the entire structure of the roof as a rigid body Furthermore only the assembly drawings the outline drawings
and pin joining was set for the connection with columns of the independent foundation and the anchor bolt plan drawings
3 1 3 Specification were submitted by G H H as the foundation drawings The detailed
As stated in an old budget document that still exists 6 the esti design drawings with detailed geometry and dimensions and the
mated cost was 80 Japanese Yen per tsubo 3 3 m2 on the basis of drawings of the arch are provided with Japanese descriptions
brick wall steel column and NAMAKO roofing the wall is built of wherein the dimensions are given in SHAKU units the traditional
red brick with corrugated steel sheets used as the roof material Japanese unit of measurement of length distance one SHAKU
NAMA KO is considered to be corrugated steel sheets In addition 303 030 mm This together with the case of the foundation of the
a unique rectangular crane rail 60 mm wide and 50 mm high is indi former First Head Office shows that the implementation of the actu
cated in one of the drawings However the said roof material and al detailed design of the foundation was conducted in Japan
the crane rail installed at its early stage were replaced and no longer 3 2 Former Forging Shop
exist The former Forging Shop that was completed in 1900 measured
3 1 4 Steel material 15 m wide in span 11 5 m high in eave height and 25 m long in
Metric units are used to indicate the dimensions of the German ridge direction at the time In 1909 it was extended by 30 m to 55
steel materials on drawings NO 30 of the aforementioned hall m The shop was relocated to another location in 1917 and is cur
mark indicates 30cm and channel steel angle steel I shaped steel rently used as the document storage office of Yawata Iron and Steel
and plates are used for the major members The purlin are tied with Works The designers structure type specification and the steel ma
round steel bars used as a steady brace to suppress the deflection To terials are the same as those of the Repair Shop Fig 6 5 Photo 5
stop the motion of the front edges of the round bars hat shaped Furthermore the existing G H H design drawings are titled Ham
steels are installed at the eave edge in the direction parallel to the di merschmiede f r das Kaiserliche Stahlwerk Japan which gives an
rection of the purlin Photo 4 7 This design is not found in factory indication of the pride felt at that time for the national project
buildings other than those designed by G H H for the factory build 3 3 Former First Head Office
ings at the start of operation As for the performance of steel materi This is the former First Head Office at the time of the start of
als based on the results of the tensile strength test and the steel operation considered to have been completed in December 1899 It
composition analysis Table 1 8 of the samples conducted on site measures 15 57 m wide on the gable face 32 7 m long in ridge di
the tensile strength is 362 8 382 5 N mm2 and the steel maintains a rection and 10 4 m high in eave height It is a two story building of
certain quality level as a common steel red brick masonry with a total floor space of 1 023 m2 Figs 7 5 8 5
3 1 5 Foundation
The foundation is an independent type and judging from the ex
isting drawings pine tree piles 2 KEN 3 6 m long and 3 KEN 5 4
m long are used together A unit of 30 70 piles is used as the foun
dation For the foundation material concrete is used with red brick
masonry above it Anchor bolts are embedded in the red brick part 7
Furthermore separate foundations are connected by an arch type
bridge of brick masonry structured to support the brick wall above
it Fig 4 5 At the time the ground was at a lower level the foun
dation was built on the ground level subsequently followed by the
building and the new ground was formed later by land fill This
Fig 4 Foundation drawing of Repair Shop 5
Photo 4 Hat shaped steel 7
Table 1 Compositions of steel channel steel 8
C Si Mn P S Cu Ni Cr
0 04 0 01 0 133 0 025 0 025 0 04 0 03 0 01 Fig 5 Foundation drawing of former Main Office 5
NIPPON STEEL SUMITOMO METAL TECHNICAL REPORT No 115 JULY 2017
Fig 6 Elevation drawing of Former Forging Shop 5
Photo 5 Former Forging Shop
Fig 8 Second floor plan of First Head Office 5
Photo 6 First Head Office
entrusted with the architectural construction work of the steel
works and further there is also a description in the document dated
December of the same year 9 He is engaged in the actual work
such as developments of measurement plans and design drawings of
various buildings This seems to indicate a connection between the
construction work and the architect Hanroku Yamaguchi from the
Meiji era He died in 1900 Therefore his work was conducted in
his last years
Fig 7 First floor plan of First Head Office 5 3 3 2 Structural form
The building wall is of red brick masonry English bond mason
Photo 6 ry using as a unit a block of two bricks placed lengthwise with a
3 3 1 Designer header brick of a thickness of half of the length and the foundation
Although the identity of the designer of such structures is un consists of the red brick arch and pine tree piles Fig 5 and the
known the following descriptions are found in the document dated roof truss is a wooden queen post truss
March 19th 1897 the 30th year of Meiji As per the provision 3 3 3 Specification
specified for the execution of the construction of the new iron and The building is roofed with Japanese roofing tiles and the ceiling
steel works that decisions made thereon shall be subject to the ap and the inner wall are finished with a wooden lathe and plaster and
proval of higher officers Therefore it is presented hereby that the floor is finished with wooden boards
the following personnel be assigned to a part time engagement 3 3 4 Building characteristics
JU Fifth Rank Doctor of Engineering Hanroku Yamaguchi to be The building has bilateral symmetry with a dome built in the
NIPPON STEEL SUMITOMO METAL TECHNICAL REPORT No 115 JULY 2017
Photo 7 Ceiling garnish in First Head Office
Fig 9 Drawing of Plate Mill figure 5
center The upper side of the window on the first floor is semicircu
lar in shape while the window on the second floor is rectangular in
shape providing a difference in the outlook A belt of white granite
is arranged around the building at the height of the lintel of the
window The interior is plaster finished and a plaster finished deco
ration is arranged in the center of the ceiling of the central meeting
room on the second floor providing a decorative counterpoint to the
simple interior finish Photo 7 As a whole the building gives the
impression of simplicity and smallness for a general director s office
room with a dignified air
Fig 10 Details of upper chord member for truss in Plate Mill 5
4 Factory Buildings after Start of Operation 1904
As all of the German engineers returned home in February 1904 stay is installed to the roof truss end to enhance the rigidity of the
the construction of the factory buildings afterwards was undertaken end of the principal rafter in a manner different to that of other fac
by Japanese only As the section to take charge of the construction tory buildings Fig 9 Furthermore this building is characterized
of factory buildings the first installation subsection was elevated to by the upper chord member of the roofing truss The upper chord is
the engineering section Shosaku Ono in February 1904 which was a T section shaped member built with two angle steels 2L 3 5
mainly composed of mechanical engineers and was installed in the inch 2 5 inch 0 5 inch and a steel plate 5 8 inch thick 12 inch
engineering department thus reinforcing the organization for pro wide Fig 10 5 to which the diagonal members are rivet joined
moting construction The operation of the engineering section per This is considered to be the predecessor of the T section steel devel
taining to the construction of factory buildings covered almost the oped later on With this design the steel plate that joins members
entire range of construction work such as centering building of the gazette plate as used in the G H H design became unnecessary
foundation fabrication of the steel frame erection roofing brick Although the steel material weight increases slightly it is advanta
masonry and so forth It is reported that many professionals such as geous in that labor is reduced Therefore the intention of the design
steeplejacks sheet metal workers etc were employed by the organi seems to be reduction of the labor cost rather than the steel weight
zation 10 4 2 Wheel Shop
Despite such circumstances there were still two examples of Another example is the Wheel Shop that started operation in
factory buildings designed by enterprises in the USA and Britain in 1906 which consists of two buildings each attached to the other
Yawata during 1904 1906 measuring 17 m wide in span 96 m long in ridge direction and 12 m
4 1 Plate Mill high in eave height Corrugated steel sheets are used for the roof and
One of them is the Plate Mill that started operation in 1905 The the wall material of the buildings which still exist with a triangular
building measured 24 4 m wide in span 195 m long in ridge direction roof type Fig 11 5
and 8 3 m high in eave height The roof of the building was of a tri 4 2 1 Design
angular shape and the corrugated steel sheets were used for the roof The building was designed by Jackson Corporation in Britain
and the wall material The mill building no longer exists Fig 9 5 Although the steel material manufacturer is unidentified the hall
4 1 1 Design mark 34 of P 34 stamped on the steel material corresponds to 34
The building was designed by the Morgan Corporation in the cm As different from the inches used for the dimension of the
USA In the drawings the position and the settlement of the steel building centimeters are used for the steel material it is considered
material joints are described in considerable detail The hallmark on that the steel materials were imported from another country for the
the steel material confirms it is produced by the Carnegie Corpora design of an enterprise in Britain
tion in the USA 4 2 2 Structural form
4 1 2 Structural form Although the roof truss is of the fink truss type the remarkable
The roof truss is of the fink truss type and as the central part of issue from the structural viewpoint is that the position of the face of
the lower chord member of the truss becomes long the part is sus the roof truss does not match the position of the column In other
pended by the two diagonal members from the top of the truss A words the columns are tied to each other by a beam on which the
NIPPON STEEL SUMITOMO METAL TECHNICAL REPORT No 115 JULY 2017
Photo 8 Roll turning Shop 11
Fig 11 Drawing of Wheel Shop 5
end of the roof truss is placed A flat bar is used as a tension member
for the lower chord of the roof truss However the rigidity of the
structure other than that of the truss face is extremely low and leg
end has it that the erection was quite difficult because upon erec
tion the lower chord was compressed and deformed when the truss
was lifted at its top Stays of a round bar with a large diameter are
installed from the eave for reinforcement which are presumed to
have been installed to enhance the rigidity that was insufficient to
withstand the vibration that occurred during operation
Common to these two buildings the building drawings were de Fig 12 Drawing of Roll turning Shop 5
livered as part of the entire set of drawings of mechanical equipment
including rolling mills This fact verifies that the factory building extensively seeking books and magazines in our country and
was treated as a part of the plant equipment abroad and By taking advantage of my business trip I visited the
science engineering department of Kyoto Imperial University and
5 Factory Buildings Designed and Constructed by implored them to impart their knowledge It is exciting to know
Japanese Engineer that within less than two years of starting to work in the engineer
5 1 Roll turning Shop ing section of the engineering department of Yawata Iron and Steel
After German engineers returned home Japanese engineers Works a mechanical engineer took charge of the design of the steel
were recruited and exceptional engineers joined the engineering sec frame structure factory building and completed it for the first time in
tion Under such circumstances the first steel frame structure facto our country This indicates the high level of education at that time
ry building was completed in 1909 wherein the entire process of It is presumed that behind the scenes his work was favored by
design procurement of steel materials fabrication and erection was a series of articles about the full scale design method of steel struc
executed by Japanese engineers for the first time Thus the Roll tures The series was started in 1905 and was published in an archi
turning Shop was constructed Photo 8 11 tectural magazine by Tadahiko Hibi a professor of the civil engi
The building measured 20 m wide in span on the gable face 10 neering course of the science engineering department of Kyoto
m 11 spans 110 m long in ridge direction 12 m high in eave Imperial University after his return from studying in Germany and
height with a crane upper surface height of 9 m The roof and the France
wall finish materials were corrugated steel sheets and the total floor 5 1 2 Structural form
space was 2 200 m2 The building was dismantled and no longer ex Although the loading conditions are not known as there is no
ists Fig 12 5 documentation on structural calculation available the structural
5 1 1 Designer and his background model is the same as that of the Repair Shop designed by G H H
The designer was Akira Kageyama He graduated from the me wherein the upper end of the column and the principal rafter edge
chanical engineering course of the science engineering depart are assumed to be pin joined The roof truss is of the fink truss type
ment of Kyoto Imperial University in 1906 After working for Kan and similar to the roof truss types of the Wheel Shop designed by
sai Railways Co Ltd he joined the Yawata Iron and Steel Works in Jackson Corporation in Britain and the model introduced by Tada
1907 and served as a manager in a factory and a manager in design hiko Hibi in an architectural magazine Fig 13 14 The shape of the
in the engineering section of the engineering department of the lower column that supports the crane runway girder is similar to that
Yawata Iron and Steel Works There were 7 602 workers in the steel of the building of the Repair Shop designed by G H H wherein four
works in 1908 and 1 000 of them belonged to the engineering sec channel steels are used as the main material and the diagonal braces
tion 12 indicating the organization for constructing factory buildings are installed all in the same direction Fig 14 5 This indicates that
was significantly large Akira Kageyama wrote in his memoir as fol he constructed the then existing factory building and the model us
lows 13 Our technical seniors in the Works were concerned about ing the architectural magazine as a reference
our design ability However I attended the lecture on architectural 5 1 3 Used steel material
structure at the university and I finished the design by referring to The following steel materials were used equal angle steel and
the knowledge I acquired through the lecture By meticulous unequal angle steel for the principal rafter Z shaped steel for the
strength calculation I was able to build the new building I studied purlin channel steel and unequal angle steel for the upper column
NIPPON STEEL SUMITOMO METAL TECHNICAL REPORT No 115 JULY 2017
channel steel and equal angle steel for the diagonal brace for the 5 2 Onga River Water Resource Pumping Station
lower column channel steel for the horizontal member and T In addition to the aforementioned Roll turning Shop although
shaped steel Z shaped steel and equal angle steel are employed for not steel structured another factory building designed by Japanese
the furring strips Meanwhile the crane runway girder is a built up engineers emerged at the same time The Onga River Water Re
beam consisting of four unequal angle steels with two on the upper source Pumping Station was completed in 1909 and this too was
side and two on the lower side as the flange and the plates as the designated as a UNESCO World Heritage site in 2015 Photos 9
web of the beam These steel materials are listed in the products cat 10
alogue 15 of the time as a matter of course In 1909 some years after The building measures on a wall dimension basis 22 13 m
the start of operation the production had increased and the product 72 59 ft wide in total span length of the two buildings on the gable
range had been expanded generating greater freedom in the choice face 37 87 m 124 23 ft long in ridge direction and 7 35 m 24 115
of member materials Furthermore it is stated in the same product ft high in eave height The Pumping Station building consists of
catalogue The strength of the mild steel for rivet material build two buildings of red brick masonry slag brick is used in part at
ing material bridge material is specified as 37 8 42 5 kg mm2 tached together The roof material is corrugated steel sheets and the
370 69 416 78 N mm2 This shows that steel materials that do roof truss is a steel frame of the fink truss type The building is still
not differ greatly from the previous common steel were produced in service as the Onga River Water Resource Pumping Station Fig
Moreover the nominal steel size of Yawata was shown in inches 15 5 The inside dimension between the walls on the gable face of
as described in the products catalogue The profiles and the dimen one of the buildings is indicated as 8 53 m 28 ft and the other one
sion of the products are shown in inches and feet based on the Brit as 12 19 m 40 ft in drawings
ish standards provided however that kilograms are used for 5 2 1 Designer
weight Therefore although the dimensions on drawings are indi As the design drawing is signed with the name of Funabashi in
cated in millimeters the dimensions of steel materials are shown in its designer s signature column together with the date of SEP 16th
inches 08 and based on the description in a document stored by the Yawata
Works Historical Materials Office in the document of Appointment
of junior officials as follows the 41st year of Meiji it is written
Kiichi Funabashi is to be entrusted with the construction work of
the Works 31st of October the 41st year of Meiji Therefore it is
considered that Kiichi Funabashi was the designer Kiichi Funabashi
served in the Ministry of Agriculture Commerce in 1896 was
employed by the Yawata Iron and Steel Works in 1897 and engaged
Fig 13 Drawing of fink truss in an architectural magazine figure 14
Photo 9 Onga River Water Resource Pumping Station
Fig 14 Detail of column in Roll turning Shop 5 Photo 10 Interior of Pumping Station
NIPPON STEEL SUMITOMO METAL TECHNICAL REPORT No 115 JULY 2017
who was the key person had already been in the position to super
vise the entire construction and was not in a position to conduct the
design alone and third there were no appropriate personnel who
could succeed his work However this was the last case of depen
dency on foreign design
Meanwhile although slightly different in nature from these pro
duction plants the Doyama Fabricating Shop that belonged to the
organization of the engineering section was expanded in 1917 Its
design was conducted not by Akira Kageyama but by a mechanical
engineer Takashi Kataoka
Hereafter the characteristic features of design are stated based
on the examples of the No 2 Steel Making Plant and the No 2 Plate
6 1 No 2 Steel Making Plant
Fig 15 Drawing of Onga River Water Resource Pumping Station 5 The building measured 19 55 m wide in the central span on the
gable face 18 646 m high in eave height with a crane upper surface
in the construction of Yawata at the start of operation Later he stud height of 13 m This was a large scale building with corrugated steel
ied in the USA on his own terms and after engaging in design work sheets used as the materials of the roof and the wall finish material
there he returned to Japan in February 1908 and opened an archi This building was dismantled and no longer exists Fig 16 5
tectural practice in 1909 This indicates the design work of the said 6 1 1 Design
factory was entrusted to him immediately after his return to Japan It was designed by G H H the same company that designed the
Although the reason is unclear it is considered as a matter of course No 1 Steel Making Plant Fig 17 5 built at the time of the start of
that his involvement helped in the construction of Yawata at the start operation When compared with that building the design of the
of operation round shaped roof was changed to a design type consisting of
As the major work of the people involved in architecture in straight lines
Yawata at the time of foundation covered the design and construc 6 1 2 Structural form
tion of the office and the official residence presumably he was en The structure was based on the king post truss type and there
gaged in the design and the construction of the former First Head was no particular change from the conventional form The details of
Office in one way or another As this building is of red brick mason this factory building are very similar to that introduced in the techni
ry the design of this building may be viewed as the upgraded design cal book by the German author Bleich that had been used as a text
of the former First Head Office book until around the early 30s of Showa Millimeters are used in
5 2 2 Structural form the design dimensions similarly as before and in conjunction with
The building is of red brick masonry slag brick is used in part this centimeters are used with the German steel material The rea
with a roof truss of the steel frame fink truss type mounted on the
brick wall
5 2 3 Building characteristics
On the exterior side of the wall where red bricks are mainly
used at the corner of the wall for the waist high wall and around
the upper round window periphery white slag bricks are used seem
ingly to imitate and substitute granite The interior has a church like
design employing an arch design and giving a highly noble feel to
the factory building The dimensions in the drawings are indicated
in inches with which Kiichi Funabashi may have wanted to show
the knowledge he had acquired in the USA The steel frame roof
truss is of the orthodox fink truss type wherein a part of the tech
nology employed in the USA at that time is witnessed Photo 10 Fig 16 Drawing of No 2 Steel Making Plant 5
6 Factory Buildings 1916 1920 Early Taisho Period
In the second stage expansion project of Yawata that started in
1906 to handle the growth of the steel demand in our country the
major factories were the No 2 Steel Making Plant No 3 Blooming
Mill No 2 Medium Section Mill No 3 Small Section Mill and No
2 Plate Mill The project is characterized by the design of the build
ings of the No 2 Steel Making Plant and the related factories being
entrusted to G H H once again In this period despite the actual
achievements in the design and completion of factories in Yawata at
its own responsibility in 1909 the continued dependency on foreign
countries had to be maintained for the following reasons First reli
able architectural technology of a large scale plant such as a steel
making plant had not been established Second Akira Kageyama Fig 17 Drawing of No 1 Steel Making Plant 5
NIPPON STEEL SUMITOMO METAL TECHNICAL REPORT No 115 JULY 2017
sons why Yawata steel material was not employed is that the design 7 Factory Buildings 1919 1925 Later Taisho Period
was made on the premise of the use of the company s own steel From 1914 the third stage expansion project was promoted The
products and that in part the steel material of Yawata was based on target mills for construction were the No 3 Steel Making Plant the
inches In the year 1916 when the plant was completed the structure Nos 4 6 Blooming Mills and the No 2 and the No 3 Large Section
had become very large as indicated by the eave height of 20 m and Mills Similar to the second stage expansion project the project
the number of rivets had increased Simultaneously the accuracy of covered a steel making plant and large section mills and the project
the rivet work was enhanced and the No 2 Steel Making Plant re consisted of the construction of large scale factory buildings
sembled a masterpiece of rivet work However the plant was dis In the second stage expansion project the construction was exe
mantled and no longer exists cuted based on the then existing conventional construction organiza
6 2 No 2 Plate Mill tion and the utilization of the foreign enterprises However in the
The building measures 17 5 m wide in span on the gable face third stage expansion project there was a distinct attitude of execut
8 4 m high in the crane upper surface height and the roof and the ing the entire structure from design to erection based wholly on the
wall finish material were corrugated steel sheets Fig 18 5 domestic technologies Specifically a project organization designat
6 2 1 Design ed as the provisional construction headquarters was established 16
Although in most cases the design was entrusted to foreign plant However as the organization consisted mostly of engineers holding
manufacturers conventionally from the viewpoint of procuring the two posts concurrently most belonging to other existing sections
whole of the plant as one package the design of the building of the the recruitment of engineers from sources outside the steelworks
No 2 Plate Mill was entrusted to the domestic Yokogawa Komusho was pursued
in 1920 This indicates the shortage of human resources of Yawata 7 1 Securing architect engineer resources
at the time and the growth of the domestic technological capability In 1916 although engineers were usually employed in the ca
Furthermore inches were used to indicate all dimensions of the pacity of assistant engineer junior officer three engineers from the
building Yokogawa Komusho Tomikichi Takeda and Saburo Hamano were
6 2 2 Structural form employed directly as engineers senior official and Kiichi Mura
Judging from the drawing a unique structural form is employed kami was employed as the assistant engineer junior official Tomi
that is characterized by a knee brace member that is suspended from kichi Takeda was appointed as the design chief and in 1919 he was
the principal rafter and supported by a large truss beam On the oth appointed as a steel frame structure design chief and as the chief of
er hand the height of the upper chord member of the roof truss is design of the official residence and the affiliated hospital Although
enlarged and the gazette plates are omitted This design is very simi the time of assignment is unknown he also assumed the post of
lar to the design of the building of the Plate Mill designed by the manager of the architecture section as an additional office
Morgan Corporation in the USA that started operation in 1905 Fig Documents clarifying the reason for the recruitment from the
19 4 This is further evidence that the American design technology Yokogawa Komusho are not available probably because the com
acquired by Tamisuke Yokogawa had been inherited as the technol pany already had experience in executing the design work for the
ogy of the Yokogawa Komusho and was utilized for the design of No 2 Plate Mill in the second stage expansion project of Yawata and
the building of the No 2 Plate Mill the company had a prominent ensemble of exceptional engineers in
7 2 Status of mechanical engineers human resources
The leading person in the steel structure architectural design in
Yawata during the period from 1907 the 40th year of Meiji to
around 1912 early Taisho period was Akira Kageyama As succes
sors to him several mechanical engineers are listed They took
charge of the design of the steel frame structures like those of the
blast furnace support structure and the design of the expansion work
of the Doyama Fabrication Shop
Fig 18 Drawing of No 2 Plate Mill 5
7 3 Design work allocation between architect engineer and me
chanical engineer
Around 1916 each organization vied with each other for work
and capable engineers took charge of it under such a situation For
example while mechanical engineers designed factory buildings
Tomikichi Takeda an architect engineer designed the support struc
ture of the No 6 Blast Furnace The allocation of work depended
largely on the individual with the work being entrusted to the divi
sion with the most capable engineers 17
Hereunder the characteristic features of their design are stated
based on the examples of the No 3 Steel Making Plant and the No 6
Blooming Mill that they designed
7 4 No 3 Steel Making Plant
The first steel making plant in Yawata that was domestically de
signed is the No 3 Steel Making Plant completed in 1923 The
building measures 20 m wide in span on the gable face 104 m long
Fig 19 Details of upper chord member for truss in No 2 Plate Mill 4 in ridge direction and 17 539 m high in eave height with a crane up
NIPPON STEEL SUMITOMO METAL TECHNICAL REPORT No 115 JULY 2017
Fig 20 Drawing of No 3 Steel Making Plant 5 Fig 23 Roof truss for No 6 Blooming Mill 5
signatures of Isao Mitsunaga as the designer and Tomikichi
Takeda as the approver Isao Mitsunaga graduated from the civil
engineering course of the engineering specialty department of To
hoku Imperial University in 1919 and it is known that engineers
with design capability other than Tomikichi Takeda and Kiichi
Mura kami were present However as the new graduate from the
university was a civil engineering engineer and not an architect en
gineer this reconfirms that the work allocated to the architect engi
neers was the construction of office buildings as well as factory
7 5 2 Structural form
As the building is of a large scale with a span length of 26 m
the roof truss is of a statically indeterminate fink truss type with the
knee brace member Fig 23 5
The characteristic features common to the factory buildings stat
Fig 21 Detail of column base in No 3 Steel Making Plant 5 ed so far including the No 3 Steel Making Plant are as follows
1 Many of the roof trusses are of the fink truss type Incidentally
all of the roof trusses of the Plate Mill buildings designed by
an American enterprise and built in 1905 the Wheel Shop de
signed by a British enterprise and built in 1906 and the Roll
turning Shop designed by Akira Kageyama in 1909 are of the
static fink truss type albeit slightly different in form
The advantageous feature of the fink truss is the shortened
Fig 22 Arch elevations of No 3 Steel Making Plant 5
compression materials of the upper truss chord members 18
The upper chord members compression members can be
per surface height of 13 m The roof and the wall finish materials shortened in the fink truss type by providing diagonal members
were corrugated steel sheets Fig 20 5 across the contact points with the compression members This
7 4 1 Design truss type was widely employed at that time to prevent the oc
As the drawings indicate Murakami as the designer and Takeda currence of the eccentricity and or buckling that occur when
as the approver the design was conducted by members from the unsymmetrical angle steel is used
Yokogawa Komusho Drawings show the details of a very sophisti 2 The roof truss of a statically indeterminate structure emerged
cated rivet structured column Fig 21 5 indicating the level of de Its emergence is attributed to the gradual growth and emer
sign was enhanced Although inches were used for the steel materi gence of larger scale buildings which led to non compliance
als as they were domestically produced millimeters are used for the with the requirements for static structure and simultaneously
dimensions in drawings the truss stress calculation technique also made progress en
7 4 2 Structural form abling analysis of the statically indeterminate truss
The roof truss has a truss structure As other characteristic fea 3 In the later Taisho period Yawata products were used for all of
tures to support the working deck the arch structure is employed the steel materials The unit of measurement used for the di
instead of the conventional support columns installed between the mensions in drawings was millimeters However as inches
main columns Fig 22 5 There was an obvious need for building a were used as the measurement unit for Yawata products the
large space member materials were indicated in inches
7 5 No 6 Blooming Mill 4 Judging from the drawings the design of columns became very
The building measures 26 m wide in span on the gable face 78 sophisticated This is considered to be attributed partly to the
m long in ridge direction and 16 5 m high in eave height with a abundant variety of steel materials
crane upper face height of 13 m The roof and the wall finish materi
als were corrugated steel sheets 8 Factory Buildings 1933 1935 Early Showa Period
7 5 1 Design All of the factories and plants were completed before 1925
The drawing dated May 1920 the 9th year of Taisho has the However Tomikichi Takeda and Kiichi Murakami retired or were
NIPPON STEEL SUMITOMO METAL TECHNICAL REPORT No 115 JULY 2017
m long in ridge direction and 16 5 m high in eave height with a
crane upper surface height of 13 m The roof and the wall finish ma
terials were corrugated steel sheets Fig 24 20
8 1 1 Design
The designer of the New No 1 Steel Making Plant Yasuichi
Watanuki graduated from the civil engineering course of the tech
nological department of Kyushu Imperial University in 1919 de
scribed the background to the design in the following discussion
meeting 19 Drawings of the Showa Seiko were forwarded to To
kyo and I borrowed them and used them as a reference As archi
Fig 24 Drawing of New No 1 Steel Making Plant 20
tect engineers were working on wooden architectures and Civil
engineering engineers were working on bridges I felt like I was
working on a relative
The drawing of the New No 1 Steel Making Plant of 1933 the
8th year of Showa shows the names of Taizo Inoue and Shinji
Inoue as the designers They were the engineers employed in the
capacity of hired engineer after graduating from technical high
school and they were engaged in the actual work It is known that
around 1933 engineers who executed actual design work had in
creased in number
In the architectural drawing the stress diagram of the roof truss
developed by graphical analysis is described which conforms to the
form of the design drawings of bridges The designs are highly de
tailed As the plant was large in scale and there were so many rivets
it is considered that around 1933 the rivet structure system had
reached the level of perfection in design and construction
As one of the characteristic features of the building a space al
lowing the passage of a person is provided in the upper column
above the crane upper surface Fig 25 5 Yasuichi Watanuki later
stated This annoyed me very much 19
8 2 Finishing Mill
Fig 25 Details of upper column in New No 1 Steel Making Plant 5 The signatures in the drawing of 1933 indicate that the construc
tion was promoted under the same organization as that for the New
No 1 Steel Making Plant As for the building the roof truss has a
relatively orthodox structure of the king post truss type Fig 26 5
9 Conclusion
The transition of the design of the factory buildings in Yawata
from the start of operation in 1901 until the construction of factory
buildings in the early Showa period is described The design relied
Fig 26 Drawing of Finishing Mill 5 on German technology at first and then triggered by the design and
construction of factory buildings by the company itself in 1909 for
transferred to another ministry in 1921 and did not see them eign technologies no longer had to be relied upon and domestic in
through to completion Due to the exit of Tomikichi Takeda and Ki ternal design was enabled by utilizing the domestic civilian technol
ichi Murakami there were no architect engineers with the design ogies of the Yokogawa Komusho and so forth that specialized in de
capability of steel frame structure buildings in Yawata for some time signing steel structures
afterwards The following quote illustrates this situation Generally The transition similarly shows the process of how the design of
architect engineers didn t show any interest in factory buildings pre the factory buildings in Yawata which had been undertaken by me
ferring to work primarily on the official residence and the welfare chanical engineers until then was transferred to the architect engi
facilities 19 neers and the civil engineering engineers along with the develop
Although the construction of the factory buildings slumped dras ment of the architect design technology
tically afterwards in 1935 the New No 1 Steel Making Plant and The transition of the design of factory buildings up to around
the Finishing Mill were completed simultaneously However as 1935 in the early Showa period is also described Thereafter from
there were no architect engineers with the capability of designing around 1940 middle of the 10s of Showa up to the present day
factory buildings the design was left to the civil engineering engi the days of the Imperial Yawata Steel Works to the inauguration of
neers This indicates that the design of factory buildings was trans the Japan Iron Steel Co Ltd the design of factory buildings
ferred to civil engineering engineers from architect engineers in was entrusted to architect engineers
cluding the factory building of the New No 1 Steel Making Plant This article was written with reference to the following materials
8 1 New No 1 Steel Making Plant A Study on the Introduction and Development process of the
The building measures 26 m wide in span on the gable face 78 Steel structure building in Japan 2009 A study on the design and
NIPPON STEEL SUMITOMO METAL TECHNICAL REPORT No 115 JULY 2017
the 29th Year of Meiji the 25th Year of Showa Collection of Articles
construction of steel structure architecture in the Japanese govern
of Historical Documents of Plant and Machinery Div No 5 Plant and
ment control Yawata Steel Works from the foundation period to the Machinery Div of Engineering Business Operation Bureau Nippon
early period of Showa Journal of Kyushu Kyoritsu University Re Steel Corporation December 1983 p 9 11
search Center 2008 and Visit to the Heritage of Industrial Mod 11 Committee for Editing Civil Engineering Magazine Yawata Works Civil
ernization Industrial Heritage Facilities of the Imperial Yawata Engineering Magazine 1976 p 81
12 Kageyama A Old Story about Iron and Steel Making Not for sale
Steel Works Tsuchikikai 50th anniversary memorial booklet 1964 p 7
2015 13 Kageyama A Old Story about Iron and Steel Making Not for sale
1964 p 20 22
References 14 Architect Magazine 240 803 1906
1 Muramatsu S History of Japanese Architecture Technology Chijin 15 Yawata Works Historical Materials Office Compiled by Steel Works
Shokan Co Ltd 1959 p 170 Catalog of Products of Japan Imperial Steel Works Shueisha Printing
2 Shiobara M Steel Structures in the Imperial Yawata Works in the Foun Co Ltd 1911
dation Period II Architect Structurer JSSC 20 216 18 1984 16 Shimizu Y Transition of the Engineering Div Overall Issue 1896
3 Compiled by Steel Works General Administration Div History of 25 1950 the 29th year of Meiji the 25th year of Showa Collection of Ar
Years of the Yawata Works November 1925 the 14th Year of Taisho p ticles of Historical Documents of Plant and Machinery Div No 5 Plant
74 and Machinery Div of Engineering Business Operation Bureau Nippon
4 Photo Stored in the Yawata Works Historical Materials Office Steel Corporation October 1982 p 29
5 Drawing stored by the Yawata Works Drawing Center 17 Shimizu Y Transition of the Engineering Div Overall Issue 1896
6 Yawata Works Historical Materials Office Documents of Study on Steel 1950 the 29th year of Meiji the 25th year of Showa Collection of Ar
Making Business Overall Co ordination Section 1895 the 28th FY of ticles of Historical Documents of Plant and Machinery Div No 5 Plant
Meiji and Machinery Div of Engineering Business Operation Bureau Nippon
7 Hirakida K Steel Structures in the Imperial Yawata Works in the Foun Steel Corporation October 1982 p 5
dation Period JSSC 20 216 21 1984 18 Committee for Compiling Architectural Technical Terminolpgy Diction
8 Hirakida K Steel Structures in the Imperial Yawata Works in the Foun ary Architectural Terminology Dictionary Gihodo p 132
dation Period JSSC 20 216 25 1984 19 Yawata Works Round Table Conference and Others Investigation on
9 Yawata Works Historical Materials Office Appointment of Senior Offi Factory Buildings in Dawn Era JSSC 13 136 4 1977
cial Draft for Recognition General Director s Secretariat 1896 1899 20 Committee for Edition of Civil Engineering Magazine Yawata Works
the 29th Year the 32th Year of Meiji Civil Engineering Magazine 1976 p 75
10 Shimizu Y Transition of Construction of Steel Structures 1896 1950
Kazuhiro HIRAKIDA
Vice President Doctor of Engineering
Fukuoka Association of Architect Building Engineers
3 14 18 Hakataeki Higashi Hakata ku Fukuoka City
Fukuoka Pref 812 0013


Related Books

Saladin Anatomy And Physiology Lab Manual Pdf

Saladin Anatomy And Physiology Lab Manual Pdf

- Essentials of anatomy and physiology saladin pdf. This site provide free online PDF manual, user guide, instruction manual, owner's SALADIN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY LAB MANUAL ANSWERS. Each manual refers to a particular topic or location. One sort of anatomy and physiology saladin 6th edition lab manual is the fact that which . includes a technical. human anatomy and physiology 7th edition ...

Continue Reading...
PELLISSIPPI STATE TECHNICAL COMMUNITY COLLEGE

PELLISSIPPI STATE TECHNICAL COMMUNITY COLLEGE

Coker, Jerry. Jerry Coker’s Jazz Keyboard for Pianists and Non-Pianists (most recent edition) Instructor may assign other materials as needed. I. Week/Unit/Topic Basis: Week Topic 1-14 Students will learn triads and 7th chords in all keys, chord symbol interpretation, and voice leading. These techniques will be applied throughout the semester to

Continue Reading...
Permanent magnet synchronous motors for inverter operation

Permanent magnet synchronous motors for inverter operation

Permanent magnet synchronous motors for inverter operation. 3 Contents Indroduction 5 Technical explanations 6 Energy saving motors 19 High-power motors 21 Torque motors 23 Dimensions 26 Contents. 4 Certifi cation. 5 Innovative drives made in Germany The reduction of CO2-emission is the big challenge of our time. Thus the reduction of energy consumption is the main topic in many applications ...

Continue Reading...
Subject Topics to be Key Learning covered

Subject Topics to be Key Learning covered

2. Produce an outcome, such as an acrostic poem or a newspaper front cover, which demonstrates your knowledge and understanding regarding the two key topic areas. Introduction to Digital Design As part of the course, students will learn about the technical features of digital products: • site structure • functionality • content

Continue Reading...
1 Exam 70-680

1 Exam 70-680

Exam 70-680: TS: Windows 7, Configuring Skills Being Measured: This exam measures your ability to accomplish the technical tasks listed below. The percentages indicate the relative weight of each major topic area on the exam. Installing, Upgrading, and Migrating to Windows 7 (14 percent) • Perform a clean installation.

Continue Reading...
A Theoretical and Practical Implementation Tutorial on ...

A Theoretical and Practical Implementation Tutorial on ...

Tutorial on Topic Modeling and Gibbs Sampling William M. Darling School of Computer Science University of Guelph December 1, 2011 Abstract This technical report provides a tutorial on the theoretical details of probabilistic topic modeling and gives practical steps on implement-ing topic models such as Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) through the

Continue Reading...
a543b8-Wiring Diagram For 2004 Mitsubishi Endeavor

a543b8-Wiring Diagram For 2004 Mitsubishi Endeavor

Arnav Star 5000 Gps Manual,1812 The Land Between Flowing Waters,Service Manual Clark Gcx20 Forklift,Thermo King Cd Max Service Manual,Nissan 240sx Service Manual Pdf,Rebellion From The Roots Indian Uprising In Chiapas, The Technical Writers And Editors Handbook,Answers Topic Test On Edgenuity,John Deere 420 Garden Tractor

Continue Reading...
John Deere 550 Round Baler Manual - WordPress.com

John Deere 550 Round Baler Manual - WordPress.com

John Deere 550 Round Baler Manual Each manual refers to particular topic or location. One sort of john deere 550 round baler operators manual is the fact that which comes with a technical device.

Continue Reading...
Model-based Risk Management for Socio-Technical Systems ...

Model-based Risk Management for Socio-Technical Systems ...

Dieter Gollmann Hamburg University of Technology . 2 About the speaker • PhD on a topic in cryptography, 1984 • Research on cryptographic algorithms & protocols, foundations of computer security, risk analysis – Container transport, German e-health card, now TRE SPASS ...

Continue Reading...
Introduction to MQTT for MQ Admins and Developers

Introduction to MQTT for MQ Admins and Developers

Capitalware's MQ Technical Conference v2.0.1.3 MQTT is pub/sub only All MQTT messages are published to a topic. No direct queuing, or indirect queuing. MQTT publications can be held for known subscribers until the subscriber reconnects. MQTT publications can be made durable – the last message published made available to new subscribers.

Continue Reading...
Activity Based Costing Topic Gateway

Activity Based Costing Topic Gateway

Prepared by Stephanie Edwards and Technical Information Service Revised November 2008 . Activity Based Costing 2 Topic Gateway Series About Topic Gateways Topic Gateways are intended as a refresher or introduction to topics of interest to CIMA members. They include a basic definition, a brief overview and a fuller explanation of practical application. Finally they signpost some further ...

Continue Reading...