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answer the questions listed below. Each answer is worth 2.5 marks, for a total of 10 marks. A. Ilan suspects that there is a relationship between the amount of choice people have when making a decision and their satisfaction with their eventual choice. He decides to study this question outside two ice?cream shops located



Introduction to Research Methods In Psychology 1
Part A Multiple choice questions 30 marks
This part includes 30 questions each of which is worth 1 mark
1 An example of an operational definition for anxiety is a
a score on an anxiety questionnaire
b person s description of anxiety
c how tense or nervous a person is presently feeling
d punctuality
2 The most accurate research method of determining whether caffeine
supplements improve memory performance is
a case study
b correlational study
c experimental study
d naturalistic observation
3 An elasticized measuring tape is used to measure a child s waist In the first
measurement the tape is stretched tightly In the second measurement the tape
is held loosely This is a good example of
a poor test retest reliability
b good test retest reliability
c good alternate forms reliability
d poor alternate forms reliability
4 Researchers find a correlation of 1 20 between coffee consumption and mental
alertness This indicates that
a drinking more coffee is associated with mental alertness
b drinking less coffee is associated with mental alertness
c there is a flaw in the computation of the correlation coefficient
d drinking coffee increases mental alertness
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2 Practice Exam
5 Evidence reveals a correlation between the number of hours toddlers spend
watching television and their level of hyperactivity in later childhood What
does this definitively indicate
a that television watching causes hyperactivity
b that hyperactive children watch television
c that parents of hyperactive children rely on television as a means of
managing hyperactivity
d that there is a relationship between television viewing and hyperactivity
6 An advantage of the case study method is
a it allows for definitive conclusions
b it is hypothesis generating
c it is hypothesis confirming
d it allows for broad conclusions
7 The standard deviation tells us
a how much on average individual scores differ from the mean
b how much on average individual scores differ from one another
c the midpoint of individual scores in a distribution
d the distance between the highest and lowest individual scores in a
distribution
8 The results of a study are found to be statistically significant This means that
a the researchers have proven their hypotheses
b the results are greater than what would be expected by chance
c the study was conducted flawlessly
d there was a large difference between the experimental and control groups
on the dependent variable
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Introduction to Research Methods In Psychology 3
9 Researchers manipulate or control variables in order to conduct
a naturalistic observation
b the double blind procedure
c case studies
d a true experiment
10 Which of the following is the strongest correlation coefficient
11 Researchers studied language development in the same group of children every
year over a five year period This research design is called
a cross sectional
b longitudinal
c placebo controlled
d correlational
12 Calculate the median of the following distribution of scores 5 2 3 8 1 4 5
13 Calculate the mode of the following distribution of scores 5 2 3 8 1 4 5
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4 Practice Exam
14 In science a theory is a n
a strongly held opinion
b specific prediction about causal factors
c testable explanation for a set of observations
d scientific law
15 Jasmeet is interested in conducting an experiment in which she manipulates the
amount of food she gives her Siamese fighting fish She ensures that the size of
the fish tank is identical for each fish and that fish are assigned into groups
randomly What aspect of this experiment has Jasmeet not worked out
a Independent variables
b Confounding variables
c Dependent variables
d Sampling bias
16 To avoid experimenter bias and subject bias researchers employ
a the single blind procedure
b the double blind procedure
c random sampling
d the naturalistic observation method
17 A concern when using self report measures is
a the hindsight bias
b reaction time validity
c the social desirability bias
d a small sample size
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Introduction to Research Methods In Psychology 5
18 Researchers are testing baby James ability to recognize his mother s face James
is presented with an image of his mother s face and a stranger s face The
researchers examine how long James looks at each image What type of measure
are the researchers using
a self report
b report by others
c behavioral
d physiological
19 What would be the best method for studying the situations in which people pick
their nose
a case study
b naturalistic observation
c correlational method
d experimental method
20 What would be the best method for examining the relationship between age and
driving behavior
a case study
b naturalistic observation
c correlational method
d experimental method
21 Uncontrolled factors that can reduce internal validity are termed
a Dependent variables
b Bias variables
c Subject variables
d Confounding variables
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6 Practice Exam
22 Science deals in not therefore science cannot deal
in absolute
a induction deduction truth
b deduction induction falsification
c induction deduction falsification
d deduction induction truth
23 Testing the reliability of a psychometric instrument by dividing the test items
into two arbitrary groups and correlating the scores obtained in the two parts of
the test is termed
a Split half reliability
b Parallel forms reliability
c Test retest reliability
d Half form reliability
24 Factorial designs are designs with more than one
a independent variable
b dependent variable
c significant interaction
d significant main effect
25 In a 2 x 3 factorial design there are treatment conditions
d There is insufficient information to answer this question
26 When different participants are randomly assigned to each of the conditions it is
a An independent groups design
b A repeated measures design
c A mixed design
d A matched groups design
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Introduction to Research Methods In Psychology 7
27 In quasi experimental research
a Researchers have no direct control over the independent variables
b There are subject variables
c Causal statements are not possible
d All of the above
28 You read in the newspaper that Vancouver has been ranked as the second best
city in the world in which to live What kind of scale is being used here
c Interval
29 The following outcome of a factorial design indicates
a A main effect of A a main effect of B and an interaction
b A main effect of A a main effect of B and no interaction
c A main effect of A no main effect of B and no interaction
d No main effect of A a main effect of B and no interaction
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8 Practice Exam
30 The following outcome of a factorial design indicates
a A main effect of A a main effect of B and an interaction
b A main effect of A a main effect of B and no interaction
c A main effect of A no main effect of B and no interaction
d No main effect of A a main effect of B and no interaction
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Introduction to Research Methods In Psychology 9
Part B Nonexperimental briefs 10 marks
Read the following descriptions of two nonexperimental studies For both studies
answer the questions listed below Each answer is worth 2 5 marks for a total of 10
A Ilan suspects that there is a relationship between the amount of choice people
have when making a decision and their satisfaction with their eventual
choice He decides to study this question outside two ice cream shops located
in different parts of the city Store A offers a choice of six flavours of ice
cream whereas Store B offers a choice of thirty flavours of ice cream For the
same two week period Ilan positions his research assistants outside both
stores between 3pm and 6pm The research assistants approach customers
who have just purchased some ice cream as they are leaving the store
introduce themselves and invite them to complete a brief questionnaire One
of the questions on the questionnaire asks the customers to rate their level of
satisfaction with the ice cream Statistical analyses show that the customers
that bought their ice cream from Store A were more satisfied than those that
bought their ice cream from Store B
B Sam is a graduate student who is interested in whether being extraverted
causes people to have more friends on Facebook He recruits a large number
of students at his university to participate in his study Before the study
begins the students give the research team permission to temporarily access
their Facebook profile page Sam gets four of his research assistants none of
whom know any of the participants personally to browse through each of
the Facebook profile pages and to record how many Facebook friends each
student has Sam also requests the students to complete a detailed
questionnaire that accurately measures how extraverted they are When Sam
looks at both sets of scores he concludes that the being extraverted does cause
people to have more Facebook friends
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10 Practice Exam
1 Describe the type of nonexperimental research used in this study How do you
know this 2 5 marks
A This is a quasi experimental study 1 mark
We know this because although the study has an independent variable
the amount of choice the participants were not randomly assigned to
their condition 1 5 marks
B This is a correlational study 1 mark
We know this because the researchers are measuring two variables
number of Facebook friends self reported extraversion among a group
of participants and then examining the relationship between them
2 Describe one threat to internal validity faced by this study design In your
opinion what is the best way to overcome or account for this threat 2 5 marks
A Selection of participants is the biggest threat to internal validity in this
study there may be pre existing differences between the two groups of
participants such as their level of income One possible solution would be
to restrict the sample to people from the same age range or other
demographic characteristics
Another possible answer concerns a confounding variable like the quality
of ice cream across the two shops The students might suggest holding the
quality of ice cream constant e g by conducting the study at the same
store but having a different number of available choices on different days
or measuring the customer rated quality and controlling for it statistically
Some students may also suggest designing an experimental study in which
participants are randomly assigned to one of the two conditions
B Because correlation does not equal causation Sam cannot be certain that
being extraverted is what caused his participants to have more Facebook
friends e g a third variable like openness to new experiences might have
caused both Social desirability might also have affected how participants
completed the extraversion questionnaire they might have wanted to
appear more extraverted than they really are
In some cases these additional variables may be measured and statistically
controlled or sub groups e g those above below average on openness
to experience analyzed separately
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Introduction to Research Methods In Psychology 11
Part C Computing a correlation coefficient 10 marks
Professor Aknin is interested in the relationship between charitable giving i e how
much money people donate to charity and happiness She administers a
questionnaire for life satisfaction among a sample of 5 people and also asks them to
estimate how much money they donated to charity over the past year The data
collected are as follows
Life satisfaction Approximate amount donated to charity
1 Compute the correlation for these data and show your work In determining
your answer show your computation and follow the correct procedure For full
marks values must exactly equal the correct values 10 marks
Formula for computing a correlation
1 mark for each correct computation of
Sum of x 87
Sum of x squared 2013
Sum of y 1100
Sum of y squared 526800
Sum of xy 27880
3 marks for correct procedure values correctly plugged into the formula
correct computation of each of the elements of the formula
2 marks for correct answer to at least two decimal places
r 7599 or just rounded to 76
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12 Practice Exam
Part D Key concepts in Research Methods 15 marks
This section evaluates your understanding of four key concepts in the course and
comprises 15 percent of your grade on the final examination Each of the four tasks
in this section is worth 5 marks Do not answer all of the questions Choose and
answer only three of the four questions
1 Discuss five threats to internal validity in studies that involve repeated testing
e g pretest posttest repeated measures etc 5 marks
1 mark for each threat properly described
Possible threats to internal validity are history maturation testing mortality
regression to the mean and instrumentation
2 List two advantages and two limitations each of case studies and quasi
experimental research 5 marks
0 625 marks for each advantage and each limitation of case studies and quasi
experimental research See Unit 3 for some possible answers
3 Describe four ways that you could improve the reliability of a study 5 marks
1 25 marks for each way that reliability could be improved up to a maximum
of 5 marks Possible ways to improve reliability there are many ways so allow
some latitude
Automate the procedure e g with computers
Train the researchers carefully and only keep those who are consistent
during training
Use more objective measures e g count behaviors instead of rating the
intensity of the behaviors
Ensure that the testing environment does not vary with repeated testing
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Introduction to Research Methods In Psychology 13
4 Give an example of how a laboratory experiment can be valid but have low
generalizability Name at least four types of validity in your example 5 marks
2 marks for discussing at least four different types of validity The validity
types can include but are not limited to internal external construct
ecological predictive discriminate face convergent etc
3 marks for describing how an internally valid experiment can lack ecological
external and predictive validity or other types outside the confines of the
laboratory
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