Disinfection Of Water Storage Facilities-Books Download

Disinfection of Water Storage Facilities

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designation ANSI/AWWA D105, Standard for Disinfection of Water Storage Facilities. The 1980 edition was developed from information originally contained in AWWA D102-64, modified to include disinfection of water-storage facilities constructed of steel or other materials. The standard was redesignated ANSI/AWWA C652 with the 1986 edition. It was ...



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AWWA Standard
This document is an American Water Works Association AWWA standard It is not a specification AWWA standards describe
minimum requirements and do not contain all of the engineering and administrative information normally contained in specifi
cations The AWWA standards usually contain options that must be evaluated by the user of the standard Until each optional
feature is specified by the user the product or service is not fully defined AWWA publication of a standard does not constitute
endorsement of any product or product type nor does AWWA test certify or approve any product The use of AWWA standards
is entirely voluntary This standard does not supersede or take precedence over or displace any applicable law regulation or
codes of any governmental authority AWWA standards are intended to represent a consensus of the water supply industry that
the product described will provide satisfactory service When AWWA revises or withdraws this standard an official notice of
action will be placed in the official notice section of Journal AWWA The action becomes effective on the first day of the month
following the month of Journal AWWA publication of the official notice
American National Standard
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National Standard is intended as a guide to aid the manufacturer the consumer and the general public The existence of an
American National Standard does not in any respect preclude anyone whether that person has approved the standard or not
from manufacturing marketing purchasing or using products processes or procedures not conforming to the standard Ameri
can National Standards are subject to periodic review and users are cautioned to obtain the latest editions Producers of goods
made in conformity with an American National Standard are encouraged to state on their own responsibility in advertising and
promotional materials or on tags or labels that the goods are produced in conformity with particular American National Standards
Caution Notice The American National Standards Institute ANSI approval date on the front cover of this standard indicates
completion of the ANSI approval process This American National Standard may be revised or withdrawn at any time ANSI
procedures require that action be taken to reaffirm revise or withdraw this standard no later than five years from the date of
publication Purchasers of American National Standards may receive current information on all standards by calling or writing
the American National Standards Institute 25 West 43rd Street Fourth Floor New York NY 10036 212 642 4900 or
e mailing info ansi org
All rights reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic or
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quotations for review purposes without the written permission of the publisher
Copyright 2011 by American Water Works Association
Printed in USA
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Committee Personnel
The AWWA Standards Committee on Disinfection of Facilities which reviewed and approved this
standard had the following personnel at the time of approval
Betsy Reilley Chair
General Interest Members
K C Choquette Iowa Department of Public Health Des Moines Iowa AWWA
D J Hartman Standards Council Liaison Greater Cincinnati Water
Cincinnati Ohio AWWA
C B Hagar Carollo Engineers Phoenix Ariz AWWA
J M Henderson West Linn Ore AWWA
S Vidika Dixon Engineering Inc Medina Ohio AWWA
J S Wailes Black Hawk Colo AWWA
T W Walker New York State Department of Health Victor N Y AWWA
M L Wentink Nebraska DHHS DPH North Platte Neb AWWA
K L Mercer Standards Engineer Liaison AWWA Denver Colo AWWA
Producer Members
R J Gordhamer Measurement Technologies Inc Redmond Wash AWWA
User Members
T F Clark Monroe County Water Authority Rochester N Y AWWA
L A Hensley Veolia Water Indianapolis LLC Indianapolis Ind AWWA
R C Lorenz Westerville Water Plant Westerville Ohio AWWA
T W D MacDonald Cambridge Water Department Cambridge Mass AWWA
P M Marchand Providence Water Supply Board Providence R I NEWWA
B Reilley Massachusetts Water Resources Authority Southborough Mass AWWA
E D Schwartz New Jersey American Water Hillsborough N J AWWA
J L Stapf Hernando County Utilities Brooksville Fla AWWA
B L Whitteberry Greater Cincinnati Water Works Cincinnati Ohio AWWA
Liaison nonvoting
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All AWWA standards follow the general format indicated subsequently Some variations from this
format may be found in a particular standard
SEC PAGE SEC PAGE
Foreword 4 4 Disinfection Procedures When
I Introduction vii Conducting Underwater
I A Background vii Inspection and or Cleaning of
Potable Water Storage Facilities 8
I B History vii
I C Acceptance vii 5 Verification
II Special Issues viii 5 1 Water Quality Sampling and
II A Information on Application Testing 12
of This Standard viii 6 Delivery 13
III Use of This Standard x
III A Purchaser Options and Alternatives xii Appendixes
A Chlorine Residual Testing 15
III B Modification to Standard xii
B Chlorine Dosages 17
IV Major Revisions xii
C Disposal of Highly Chlorinated
V Comments xii
1 General B 1 Amounts of Chemical Required to
1 1 Scope 1 Give Various Chlorine
1 2 Purpose 1 Concentrations in 100 000 gal
1 3 Application 2 378 5 m3 of Water 17
B 2 Amounts of Chemical Required to
2 References 2
Give a Chlorine Concentration
3 Definitions 3 of 200 mg L in Various
Volumes of Water 18
4 Requirements
C 1 Amounts of Chemical Required
4 1 Materials and Cleaning 4
to Neutralize Various Residual
4 2 Forms of Chlorine for Disinfection 4 Chlorine Concentrations in
4 3 Methods of Chlorination 5 100 000 gal 378 5 m3 of
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This foreword is for information only and is not a part of ANSI AWWA C652
I Introduction
I A Background This standard describes methods of disinfecting water
storage tanks The disinfecting agents discussed in this standard are chlorine solutions
and several combinations of free chlorine residual and contact time CT are provided
The chlorine solutions may be derived from liquid chlorine Cl2 calcium hypochlorite
Ca OCl 2 or sodium hypochlorite NaOCl
I B History This standard was first approved on June 15 1980 under the
designation ANSI AWWA D105 Standard for Disinfection of Water Storage Facilities
The 1980 edition was developed from information originally contained in AWWA
D102 64 modified to include disinfection of water storage facilities constructed of
steel or other materials The standard was redesignated ANSI AWWA C652 with the
1986 edition It was later revised in 1992 and again in 2002 This edition was approved
by the AWWA Board of Directors on June 12 2011
I C Acceptance In May 1985 the US Environmental Protection Agency
USEPA entered into a cooperative agreement with a consortium led by NSF
International NSF to develop voluntary third party consensus standards and a
certification program for direct and indirect drinking water additives Other members
of the original consortium included the American Water Works Association Research
Foundation AwwaRF now Water Research Foundation and the Conference of
State Health and Environmental Managers COSHEM The American Water Works
Association AWWA and the Association of State Drinking Water Administrators
ASDWA joined later
In the United States authority to regulate products for use in or in contact with
drinking water rests with individual states Local agencies may choose to impose
requirements more stringent than those required by the state To evaluate the health
effects of products and drinking water additives from such products state and local
agencies may use various references including
1 An advisory program formerly administered by USEPA Office of Drinking
Water discontinued on Apr 7 1990
American National Standards Institute 25 West 43rd Street Fourth Floor New York NY 10036
Water Research Foundation 6666 W Quincy Avenue Denver CO 80235
Persons outside the United States should contact the appropriate authority having jurisdiction
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2 Specific policies of the state or local agency
3 Two standards developed under the direction of NSF NSF ANSI 60
Drinking Water Treatment Chemicals Health Effects and NSF ANSI 61 Drinking
Water System Components Health Effects
4 Other references including AWWA standards Food Chemicals Codex
Water Chemicals Codex and other standards considered appropriate by the state or
local agency
Various certification organizations may be involved in certifying products in accor
dance with NSF ANSI 61 Individual states or local agencies have authority to accept
or accredit certification organizations within their jurisdiction Accreditation of certi
fication organizations may vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction
Annex A Toxicology Review and Evaluation Procedures to NSF ANSI 61 does
not stipulate a maximum allowable level MAL of a contaminant for substances not
regulated by a USEPA final maximum contaminant level MCL The MALs of an
unspecified list of unregulated contaminants are based on toxicity testing guidelines
noncarcinogens and risk characterization methodology carcinogens Use of Annex A
procedures may not always be identical depending on the certifier
ANSI AWWA C652 does not address additives requirements Thus users of this
standard should consult the appropriate state or local agency having jurisdiction in
1 Determine additives requirements including applicable standards
2 Determine the status of certifications by parties offering to certify products
for contact with or treatment of drinking water
3 Determine current information on product certification
II Special Issues
II A Information on Application of This Standard Utilities are increasingly
focusing on water storage reservoir management and maintenance as part of preserving
distribution system water quality Disinfection of water storage tanks presents special
challenges due to the quantity of water that must be dealt with the conditions of the
water supplied to the tank and the ability to collect representative samples of the water
in the tank
Disinfection of tanks and other facilities used for drinking water relies on high
levels of free chlorine to ensure bacteria and other potential pathogens are inactivated
NSF International 789 N Dixboro Road Ann Arbor M 48105
Both publications available from National Academy of Sciences 500 Fifth Street NW Washington
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It should be noted that pH and temperature are two important factors affecting the
disinfection process Hypochlorous acid and hypochlorite are the two forms of chlo
rine present in water at pH greater than 3 Hypochlorous acid has been shown to be
significantly more effective than hypochlorite for disinfection Above pH 9 there is
essentially no hypochlorous acid only hypochlorite Temperature also affects the effec
tiveness of disinfection low temperatures are not as effective as high temperatures for
chlorine disinfection The high chlorine dosages required in this standard are necessary
to provide effective disinfection under varying conditions of pH temperature and
other factors
Following disinfection and prior to activating the tank for use water in the storage
tank should be tested to determine that it meets expected parameters typical in the sys
tem Consider especially the work done in the tank and appropriate parameters to mea
sure Test results should confirm that the water quality is appropriate for distribution
Although this assessment is unique for each system suggested test parameters include
pH alkalinity turbidity odor and specific conductance If the tank was painted or
if epoxy was applied measuring levels of volatile organic compounds VOC or other
components of the coating material such as zinc may be necessary noting that the
trihalomethanes THMs chloroform bromodichloromethane dibromochlorometh
ane and bromoform which are part of the VOC test are a result of disinfection not
coating materials and would be expected to be present Satisfactory chlorine residual
and coliform results are also required
When collecting samples for analysis of coliform or other parameters it is impor
tant that the sample represent the water quality in the tank Sample taps need to be
clean and sanitary In some cases samples may need to be collected from the top of the
tank or hatch When sampling from the top of the tank or hatch use of a depth sam
pler may be beneficial to best represent the quality of water that will enter the system
For bacteriological tests the results of testing must show no coliform Given the
different test procedures available for coliform analysis results should be expressed as
confirmed coliform and should be 1 cfu 100mL 1 MPN 100 mL or Absent
While bacteriological testing in accordance with Section 5 is used to verify the
absence of coliform organisms and is generally accepted as verification that acceptable
disinfection has been accomplished following sanitary procedures during the course of
all work is necessary to ensure the disinfected tank will be ready for activation
Disinfectants other than chlorine may be appropriate to use While this standard
describes only the use of liquid chlorine sodium hypochlorite solutions and calcium
hypochlorite the applicability of other disinfectants should be evaluated Ozone and
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chemical cleaners have been used and these warrant further investigation Which
ever disinfectant or method is selected approval from the local regulatory agency is
As more frequent inspections and cleaning of reservoirs are required utilities are
turning to methods that minimize downtime and wasted water Utilities may use
methods employing divers or remotely operated vehicles ROVs for both inspection
and sediment removal Sec 4 4 of this standard describes the disinfection procedures
and operational considerations for conducting inspection and cleaning in potable
water storage facilities It should be noted that any underwater retrieval of remotely
operated vehicles with divers must be performed in accordance with all aspects of this
standard When selecting a contractor to perform this type of work it is essential to
evaluate their experience safety procedures and methods Each bidder should be will
ing to meet the minimum requirements set by this standard for safe performance of
the work This standard includes references to pertinent OSHA regulations There are
specific technical skills a utility should look for when considering a firm for this type
of work such as the following
Qualifications for conducting in service operations in compliance with OSHA
Qualifications for inspecting and evaluating steel concrete wood or membrane
covered reservoirs
Resumes for the specific personnel who will perform underwater inspection and
or cleaning
Sec 4 4 does not address the following items each of which must be specified by
the purchaser
1 The type of inspection to be performed structural coating bottom sedi
ment cathodic protection bacteriological and so forth
2 The technical requirements of the inspection and or cleaning
For additional guidance refer to AWWA Manual M42 Steel Water Storage Tanks
Sec 4 4 does not attempt to rewrite existing safety standards and relies on the
existing applicable OSHA Standards including but not limited to
OSHA 29 CFR Subpart T Commercial Diving Operations 1910 401 through
OSHA 29 CFR Permit Required Confined Spaces 1910 146
III Use of This Standard This standard describes methods of disinfecting
water storage facilities that are newly constructed have been entered for construction
or inspection purposes or that continue to show the presence of coliform bacteria
during normal operation In addition the standard defines disinfection procedures for
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underwater inspections because water utilities increasingly are employing divers and
remotely operated vehicles to conduct underwater inspections and or cleaning of in
service potable water storage facilities to minimize water loss and downtime normally
associated with necessary maintenance The standard does not describe the type and
technical requirements of underwater inspection and or cleaning or the required skill
level of the diving inspector
A storage facility is defined as a reservoir from which water without further treat
ment other than booster disinfection is supplied directly to the distribution piping
system for domestic use From a practical standpoint this standard applies to the dis
infection of covered storage facilities constructed of steel concrete or materials that
would provide a similar structure from a water quality standpoint Because wood may
support the growth of coliform bacteria it is recommended that any submerged wood
surface columns baffles and so forth be coated with epoxy or other durable effec
tively impermeable paint or coating approved for domestic water use
Parts of this standard may be applicable to the disinfection of large finished water
open storage reservoirs such as reservoirs formed by concrete or earth dams but these
applications are incidental and this standard is not intended to cover those kinds of
storage facilities
Three methods of chlorinating storage facilities are described in this standard Each
utility should decide which method is most suitable for a given situation In selecting
the method to be used utility personnel should consider the availability of materials
and equipment for disinfection the training of personnel who will perform the disin
fection chlorinated water disposal options and safety For example gas chlorination
should be used only when properly designed and constructed equipment is available
makeshift equipment is not acceptable when liquid chlorine cylinders are used Spray
equipment should be used inside the storage facility only when thorough ventilation
is ensured or when appropriate protection is provided using canister type gas masks or
self contained breathing units If a chlorination method is selected that requires the
storage facility to be drained in order to dispose of highly chlorinated water thorough
consideration should be given to the effect on the receiving environment If there is
any question as to whether a chlorinated waste discharge may cause damage to fish
life plant life physical installations or other downstream water uses of any type an
adequate amount of a reducing agent should be applied to the discharged water in
order to thoroughly neutralize the chlorine residual
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It is the responsibility of the user of an AWWA standard to determine that the
products and procedures described in that standard are suitable for use in the particu
lar application being considered
III A Purchaser Options and Alternatives This standard is written as though the
work will be done by the purchaser s personnel If the purchaser is contracting for the
work to be done appropriate provisions should be included in the contract agreement
to ensure the contractor is specifically instructed as to his or her responsibilities At a
minimum the purchaser should specify the following
1 Standard used that is ANSI AWWA C652 Disinfection of Water Storage
Facilities of latest revision
2 Whether compliance with NSF ANSI 60 Drinking Water Treatment
Chemicals Health Effects is required
3 Method of disinfection to be used
4 Any required disposal and precautions to be taken in disposing of chlori
nated water in the storage facility
5 Bacteriological testing and method to be used
6 Redisinfection procedure if required
7 Details of other federal state or provincial and local requirements Section 4
III B Modification to Standard Any modification of the provisions definitions
or terminology in this standard must be provided by the purchaser
IV Major Revisions Major changes made in this revision of ANSI AWWA
C652 are as follows
1 Several definitions have been added or updated
2 Addition of Sec 5 1 1 5 Optional Sampling and Testing
3 Broad revision of Sec 4 4 7 Post inspection chlorine residual turbidity and
bacteriological testing
V Comments If you have any comments or questions about this standard
please call AWWA Engineering and Technical Services at 303 794 7711 FAX at
303 795 7603 write to the department at 6666 West Quincy Avenue Denver CO
80235 3098 or e mail at standards awwa org
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ANSI AWWA C652 11
Revision of ANSI AWWA C652 02
AWWA Standard
Disinfection of Water Storage
Facilities
SECTION 1 GENERAL
Sec 1 1 Scope
This standard for disinfection of water storage facilities describes materials
facility preparation application of disinfectant to interior surfaces of facilities and
sampling and testing for the presence of coliform bacteria chlorine residual and
acceptable aesthetic water quality The standard also includes disinfection proce
dures for underwater inspection and or cleaning of potable water storage facilities
but does not describe the technical aspects of underwater inspection and or clean
ing All new storage facilities shall be disinfected before they are placed in service
All storage facilities taken out of service for inspection repair painting cleaning
or other activity that might lead to water contamination shall be disinfected before
they are returned to service
Sec 1 2 Purpose
The purpose of this standard is to define the minimum requirements for the
disinfection of water storage facilities including the preparation of water storage
facilities application of chlorine procedures for disinfecting underwater inspec
tion and cleaning equipment and sampling and testing for the presence of coli
form bacteria chlorine residual and acceptable aesthetic water quality


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