Contents And Preface Of The Rfid Handbook-Books Download

Contents and Preface of the RFID Handbook

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Contents and Preface of the RFID-Handbook RFID-Handbook, Wiley & Sons LTD 1999 Radio-Frequency Identification: Fundamentals and Applications Klaus Finkenzeller, Munich, Germany



chapter page
preface xiii
list of abbreviations xv
1 Introduction 1
1 1 Automatic Identification Systems 2
1 1 1 Barcode systems 2
1 1 2 Optical character recognition 3
1 1 3 Biometric procedure 4
1 1 3 1 Voice identification 4
1 1 3 2 Finger printing procedures dactyloscopy 4
1 1 4 Smart cards 4
1 1 4 1 Memory cards 5
1 1 4 2 Microprocessor cards 5
1 1 5 RFID systems 6
1 2 A Comparison of Different ID Systems 6
1 3 Components of an RFID System 7
2 Differentiation Features of RFID Systems 11
2 1 Fundamental Differentiation Features 11
2 2 Transponder Construction Formats 13
2 2 1 Disks and coins 13
2 2 2 Glass housing 14
2 2 3 Plastic housing 15
2 2 4 Tool and gas bottle identification 16
2 2 5 Keys and key fobs 17
2 2 6 Clocks 19
2 2 7 ID 1 format contactless smart cards 19
2 2 8 Other formats 21
2 3 Frequency Range and Coupling 21
2 3 1 Close coupling 21
chapter page
2 3 2 Remote coupling 22
2 3 3 Long range 22
2 3 4 System performance 23
3 Fundamental Operating Principles 25
3 1 1 Bit Transponder 26
3 1 1 Radio frequency 26
3 1 2 Microwaves 29
3 1 3 Frequency divider 31
3 1 4 Electromagnetic types 32
3 2 Full and Half Duplex Procedure 34
3 2 1 Inductive coupling 35
3 2 1 1 Power supply to passive transponders 35
3 2 1 2 Data transfer transponder reader 37
3 2 2 Electromagnetic backscatter coupling 41
3 2 2 1 Power supply to the transponder 41
3 2 2 2 Data transmission reader 41
3 2 3 Close coupling 43
3 2 3 1 Power supply to the transponder 43
3 2 3 2 Data transfer transponder reader 44
3 2 4 Data transfer reader transponder 44
3 3 Sequential Procedures 45
3 3 1 Inductive coupling 45
3 3 1 1 Power supply to the transponder 45
3 3 1 2 A comparison between FDX HDX and SEQ systems 45
3 3 1 3 Data transmission transponder reader 47
3 3 2 Surface acoustic wave transponder 48
4 Physical Principles of RFID Systems 53
4 1 Magnetic Field 53
4 1 1 Magnetic field strength H 53
4 1 1 1 Path of field strength H x in conductor loops 55
chapter page
4 1 1 2 Optimal antenna diameter 57
4 1 2 Magnetic flux and magnetic flux density 58
4 1 3 Inductance L 59
4 1 4 Mutual inductance M 60
4 1 5 Coupling coefficient k 62
4 1 6 Faraday s law 64
4 1 7 Resonance 66
4 1 8 Practical operation of the transponder 71
4 1 8 1 Power supply to the transponder 71
4 1 8 2 Voltage regulation 71
4 1 9 Interrogation field strength Hmin 74
4 1 9 1 Energy range of transponder systems 76
4 1 10 Total transponder reader system 78
4 1 10 1 Transformed transponder impedance ZT 80
4 1 10 2 Influencing variables of ZT 83
4 1 10 3 Load modulation 90
4 1 11 Measuring the coupling coefficient k 98
4 1 12 Magnetic materials 99
4 1 12 1 Properties of magnetic materials and ferrite 99
4 1 12 2 Ferrite antennas in LF transponders 101
4 1 12 3 Ferrite shielding in a metallic environment 101
4 2 Electromagnetic Waves 102
4 2 1 The creation of electromagnetic waves 102
4 2 2 Reflection of electromagnetic waves 105
4 2 3 Radar cross section of an antenna 106
4 2 4 Modulated radar cross section 109
4 2 5 Effective length 109
4 2 6 Antenna construction formats for microwave transponders 110
4 2 6 1 Slot antennas 110
4 2 6 2 Planar antennas 110
chapter page
4 2 6 3 Overview antenna parameters 110
5 Frequency Ranges and Radio Licensing Regulations 111
5 1 Frequency Ranges Used 111
5 1 1 Frequency range 9 135 kHz 111
5 1 2 Frequency range 6 78 MHz 114
5 1 3 Frequency range 13 56 MHz 114
5 1 4 Frequency range 27 125 MHz 114
5 1 5 Frequency range 40 680 MHz 115
5 1 6 Frequency range 433 920 MHz 115
5 1 7 Frequency range 869 0 MHz 115
5 1 8 Frequency range 915 0 MHz 116
5 1 9 Frequency range 2 45 GHz 116
5 1 10 Frequency range 5 8 GHz 116
5 1 11 Frequency range 24 125 GHz 116
5 1 12 Selection of a suitable frequency for inductively coupled RFID systems 116
5 2 International Licensing Regulations 119
5 2 1 CEPT ERC 70 03 119
5 2 2 EN 300330 9 kHz 25 MHz 119
5 2 2 1 Carrier power limit values for class 1 transmitters 120
5 2 2 2 Carrier power limit values for class 2 transmitters 120
5 2 2 3 Modulation bandwidth 122
5 2 2 4 Spurious emissions 122
5 2 3 EN 300220 1 EN 300220 2 122
5 2 4 EN 300440 123
5 3 National Licencing Regulations U S A 124
6 Coding and Modulation 125
6 1 Coding in the Baseband 126
6 2 Digital Modulation Procedures 128
6 2 1 Amplitude shift keying ASK 129
6 2 2 2 FSK 132
chapter page
6 2 3 2 PSK 133
6 2 4 Modulation procedures with subcarrier 134
7 Data Integrity 137
7 1 The Checksum Procedure 137
7 1 1 Parity checking 137
7 1 2 LRC procedure 138
7 1 3 CRC procedure 139
7 2 Anticollision 141
7 2 1 How collision arises 141
7 2 2 Anticollision procedures 142
7 2 2 1 Spatial domain anticollision procedures 142
7 2 2 2 Frequency domain anticollision procedures 143
7 2 2 3 Time domain anticollision procedures 143
7 2 3 Application example binary search algorithm 144
8 Data Security 151
8 1 Mutual Symmetrical Authentication 151
8 2 Authentication Using Derived Keys 153
8 3 Encrypted Data Transfer 154
8 3 1 Stream cipher 155
9 Standardisation 159
9 1 Animal Identification 159
9 1 1 ISO 11784 Code structure 159
9 1 2 ISO 11785 Technical concept 160
9 1 2 1 Requirements 160
9 1 2 2 Full half duplex system 162
9 1 2 3 Sequential system 162
9 2 Contactless Smart Cards 163
9 2 1 ISO 10536 Close coupling smart cards 163
9 2 1 1 Part 1 Physical characteristics 163
9 2 1 2 Part 2 Dimensions and locations of coupling areas 164
chapter page
9 2 1 3 Part 3 Electronic signals and reset procedures 164
9 2 1 4 Part 4 Answer to reset and transmission protocols 165
9 2 2 ISO 14443 Proximity coupling smart cards 165
9 2 3 ISO 15693 Vicinity coupling smart cards 166
9 3 ISO 69873 Data Carriers for Tools and Clamping Devices 167
9 4 ISO 10374 Container Identification 167
9 5 VDI 4470 Anti theft Systems for Goods 168
9 5 1 Part 1 Detection gates inspection guidelines for customers 168
9 5 1 1 Ascertaining the false alarm rate 169
9 5 1 2 Ascertaining the detection rate 169
9 5 1 3 Forms in VDI 4470 169
9 5 2 Part 2 Deactivation devices inspection guidelines for customers 170
10 The Architecture of Electronic Data Carriers 171
10 1 Transponder with Memory Function 172
10 1 1 HF interface 172
10 1 2 Address and security logic 173
10 1 2 1 State machine 174
10 1 3 Memory architecture 175
10 1 3 1 Read only transponder 175
10 1 3 2 Writeable transponder 177
10 1 3 3 Transponder with cryptological function 177
10 1 3 4 Segmented memory 179
10 1 3 5 MIFARE application directory 181
10 2 Microprocessors 185
10 2 1 Dual interface card 187
10 2 1 1 MIFARE plus dual interface card 189
10 3 Memory Technology 190
10 3 1 RAM 190
10 3 2 EEPROM 191
10 3 3 FRAM 192
chapter page
10 3 4 Performance comparison FRAM EEPROM 194
10 4 Measuring Physical Variables 194
10 4 1 Transponder with sensor functions 194
10 4 2 Measurements using microwave transponders 195
11 Readers 199
11 1 Data Flow in an Application 199
11 2 Components of a Reader 200
11 2 1 HF interface 202
11 2 1 1 Inductively coupled system FDX HDX 202
11 2 1 2 Microwave systems half duplex 203
11 2 1 3 Sequential systems SEQ 204
11 2 2 Control unit 205
11 3 Low Cost Configuration Reader IC U2270B 207
11 4 Connection of Antennas 209
11 4 1 Antennas for inductive systems 209
11 4 1 1 Connection using current matching 209
11 4 1 2 Supply via coaxial cable 211
11 4 1 3 The Influence of the Q Factor 215
11 4 2 Antennas for microwave systems 216
11 5 Reader Designs 217
12 The Manufacture of Transponders and Contactless Smart 219
12 1 Module Manufacture 219
12 2 Semi Finished Transponder 221
12 3 Completion 222
12 4 Contactless Smart Cards 222
13 Example Applications 227
13 1 Contactless Smart cards 227
13 2 Public Transport 229
13 2 1 The starting point 229
chapter page
13 2 2 Requirements 230
13 2 2 1 Transaction time 230
13 2 2 2 Resistance to degradation lifetime convenience 231
13 2 3 Benefits of RFID systems 231
13 2 4 Fare systems using electronic payment 232
13 2 5 Market potential 234
13 2 6 Example projects 234
13 2 6 1 Korea Seoul 234
13 2 6 2 Germany L neburg Oldenburg 236
13 3 Ticketing 237
13 3 1 Lufthansa Miles More card 237
13 3 2 Ski tickets 239
13 4 Access Control 241
13 5 Transport Systems 242
13 5 1 Eurobalise S21 242
13 5 2 International container transport 244
13 6 Animal Identification 245
13 6 1 Stock keeping 245
13 6 2 Carrier pigeon races 251
13 7 Electronic Immobilisation 253
13 7 1 The functionality of an immobilisation system 253
13 7 2 Brief success story 256
13 7 3 Predictions 257
13 8 Container Identification 257
13 8 1 Gas bottles and chemical containers 257
13 8 2 Waste disposal 259
13 9 Sporting Events 261
13 10 Industrial Automation 263
13 10 1 Tool identification 263
13 10 2 Industrial Production 266
chapter page
13 10 2 1 Benefits from the use of RFID systems 269
13 10 2 2 The selection of a suitable RFID system 270
13 10 2 3 Example projects 271
14 Market Overview 275
14 1 Selection Criteria 275
14 1 1 Operating frequency 275
14 1 2 Range 276
14 1 3 Security requirements 277
14 1 4 Memory size 278
14 2 System Overview 278
14 3 Contact Addresses Technical Periodicals 287
14 3 1 Industrial associations 287
14 3 2 Technical journals and events 290
14 3 3 RFID on the Internet 292
15 Appendices 293
15 1 Relevant Standards and Regulations 293
15 1 1 Sources of supply for standards and regulations 294
15 2 References 294
16 Index 299
This book is aimed at an extremely wide range of readers First and foremost it is intended for
students and engineers who find themselves confronted with RFID technology for the first time
A few basic chapters are provided for this audience describing the functionality of RFID tech
nology and the physical and IT related principles underlying this field The book is also inten
ded for practitioners who as users wish to or need to obtain as comprehensive and detailed an
overview of the various technologies the legal framework or the possible applications of RFID
as possible
Although a wide range of individual articles are now available on this subject the task of gathe
ring all this scattered information together when it is needed is a tiresome and time consuming
one as researching this book has proved This book therefore aims to fill a gap in the range of
literature on the subject of RFID
This book uses numerous pictures and diagrams to attempt to give a graphic representation of
RFID technology in the truest sense of the word Particular emphasis is placed on practical
considerations For this reason the chapter entitled Example Applications is particularly com
prehensive
Technological developments in the field of RFID technology are proceeding at such a pace that
although a book like this can explain the general scientific principles it is not dynamic enough
to be able to explore the latest trends regarding the most recent products on the market I am
therefore grateful for any suggestions and advice particularly from the field of industry The
basic concepts and underlying physical principles remain however and provide a good back
ground for understanding the latest developments
At this point I would also like to express my thanks to those companies who were kind enough
to contribute to the success of this project by providing numerous technical data sheets lecture
manuscripts and photographs
Munich January 1998
Klaus Finkenzeller


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